### Generating Matrices

MATLAB software provides four functions that generate basic matrices.

**zeros ** All zeros

**ones ** All ones

**rand** Uniformly distributed random elements

**randn** Normally distributed random elements

Here are some examples:

```
Z = zeros(2,4)
Z =
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
F = 5*ones(3,3)
F =
5 5 5
5 5 5
5 5 5
N = fix(10*rand(1,10))
N =
9 2 6 4 8 7 4 0 8 4
R = randn(4,4)
R =
0.6353 0.0860 -0.3210 -1.2316
-0.6014 -2.0046 1.2366 1.0556
0.5512 -0.4931 -0.6313 -0.1132
-1.0998 0.4620 -2.3252 0.3792
```

### The load Function

The **load** function reads binary files containing matrices generated by earlier MATLAB sessions, or reads text files containing numeric data. The text file should be organized as a rectangular table of numbers, separated by blanks, with one row per line, and an equal number of elements in each row. For example, outside of MATLAB, create a text file containing these four lines:

```
16.0 3.0 2.0 13.0
5.0 10.0 11.0 8.0
9.0 6.0 7.0 12.0
4.0 15.0 14.0 1.0
```

Save the file as magik.dat in the current directory. The statement

`load magik.dat`

reads the file and creates a variable, magik, containing the example matrix.

An easy way to read data into MATLAB from many text or binary formats is to use the Import Wizard.

### M-Files

You can create your own matrices using M-files, which are text files containing MATLAB code. Use the MATLAB Editor or another text editor to create a file containing the same statements you would type at the MATLAB command line. Save the file under a name that ends in .m.

For example, create a file in the current directory named magik.m containing these five lines:

A = [16.0 3.0 2.0 13.0

5.0 10.0 11.0 8.0

9.0 6.0 7.0 12.0

4.0 15.0 14.0 1.0 ];

The statement

**magik**

reads the file and creates a variable, A, containing the example matrix.

### Concatenation

Concatenation is the process of joining small matrices to make bigger ones. In fact, you made your first matrix by concatenating its individual elements. The pair of square brackets, [], is the concatenation operator. For an example, start with the 4-by-4 magic square, A, and form

`B = [A A+32; A+48 A+16]`

The result is an 8-by-8 matrix, obtained by joining the four submatrices:

```
B =
16 3 2 13 48 35 34 45
5 10 11 8 37 42 43 40
9 6 7 12 41 38 39 44
4 15 14 1 36 47 46 33
64 51 50 61 32 19 18 29
53 58 59 56 21 26 27 24
57 54 55 60 25 22 23 28
52 63 62 49 20 31 30 17
```

This matrix is halfway to being another magic square. Its elements are a rearrangement of the integers 1:64. Its column sums are the correct value for an 8-by-8 magic square:

```
sum(B)
ans =
260 260 260 260 260 260 260 260
```

But its row sums, sum(B’)’, are not all the same. Further manipulation is necessary to make this a valid 8-by-8 magic square.

### Deleting Rows and Columns

You can delete rows and columns from a matrix using just a pair of square brackets. Start with

`X = A;`

Then, to delete the second column of X, use

`X(:,2) = []`

This changes X to

```
X =
16 2 13
5 11 8
9 7 12
4 14 1
```

If you delete a single element from a matrix, the result is not a matrix anymore. So, expressions like

`X(1,2) = []`

result in an error. However, using a single subscript deletes a single element, or sequence of elements, and reshapes the remaining elements into a row vector. So

`X(2:2:10) = []`

results in

```
X =
16 9 2 7 13 12 1
```